„Switzerland“ during the years 1933-1945 and the Holocaust-Shoa.

“Related sites and additional information„

The „Swissbanks“ hoarding the wealth  and bank accounts of the countless Holocaust-Shoa victims, 1933-1945- since 62 years the unclaimed assets from Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and of Turkish descent as Jews&Turks.

  Economic-sanctions
 Switzerland


 

 Switzerland
in crosshairs


 


1938 Infamous Switzerland



 

Switzerland
 Sealing Borders


 

                                                                        


“Additional information„
The good Father Roncalli
Against neglect the Holocaust and Turkish citizens

Foto: 1945 The good Father Roncalli for decades in Istanbul/Turkey who later became the Pope John XXIII. and in the year 2000 he became Saint in Istanbul/Turkey.

The good Father Roncalli had been living for decades in Istanbul/Turkey how he helped during the Holocaust-Shoa 1933-1945, and the unique Turkish diplomats, the Diplomatic Corp  and their  self sacrificing actions  in saving lives of own citizens, European Jews,  Jewish descent  and Christians, and reminded the citizens of Turkey of their loyalty to the contless Jewish and Jewish descent, Christian refugees, children and families and the contless murdered victims of Turkey that should never be forgotten, 1950 Father  Roncalli  who  became later the Pope.

To bear in remembrance the Turkish citizens, the former Turkish  citizens and  Turkish descent Jews&Turks, their forgotten Bank accounts, wealth in Switzerland during the Holocaust- Shoa 1933-1945 and World War II.

Between 1933-1945 in Switzerland Jews  and  Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, the former Turkish  citizens and Turkish descent Jews&Turks refugees were imprisoned and separated from their families, and children and sent to the work camps for rented as a slaves to several factorys in Konstanz, Singen etc. in Nazi-Germany.


“Additional information„

The big red „J“- and „JUIVE“- Stamp invented by Switzerland  1937-1945.

During the Holocaut-Shoa 1933-1945 and between 1937-1945 it was Switzerland, the country's request to Germany to stamp all passports and identities of all Jews, Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkish descent  Jews&Turks  in Europe and world wide with a red „J“- and „JUIVE“- Stamp, enabling Switzerland to prevent Jews and Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkish descent  Jews&Turks from entering their country to survive. (BergierReport).

1939-1945  the US Intelligence service CIA revealed  in  1997  that  during  the  Holocaust-Shoa  1933-1945  and  World  War II. Switzerland National Bank sent 280 big truck - loads of Nazi- Gold to Spain and Portugal? (USAT, 1/13/97, p.3A).
 

The Swiss bank's are hoarding for 62 years now the wealth and the bank accounts of countless Holocaust-Shoa victims, of Europen Jews, Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks murdered in the countless death camps between 1933-1945.

The World Jewish Congress  refers to 2 million  Bank  accounts  opened  in  Switzerland by the Holocaust Shoah victims between 1932-1945.

The Yad Vashem Holocaust-Shoa  Memorial  in Israel provided countless names, safe accounts, wealth, insurances, savings and Bank accunts from millions of  Holocaust-Shoah victims 1933-1945.

The Bergier Report:

The History of the Europen Jews, Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks, the helpless refuges at the border to Switzerland during the Holocaust-Shoa 1933-1945.

In December 1998-1999, a report was commissioned by the Swiss government, known as the Bergier Report, addressed in Switzerland's refugee policy  before and during World War - II.
 
The report is named after Professor Jean-François Bergier, the chairman of the commission of experts assembled by Switzerland in the 1990's to examine various aspects of the nation's actions during the Holocaust Shoa before, during and after the World War II, 1933-1945.

The Bergier Report:

They criticizes in two (2) decision's by Switzerland that it had a devastating impact on all Jews and Jewish descent Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks attempting to find refuge and survive there.

The first
(1)  in 1937-1938 it was Switzerland the country's request to Nazi-Germany to stamp all passport of Jews and and Jewish descent Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks with a big red
„J“- and „JUIVE“- Stamp, enabling Switzerland to prevent of Jews and and Jewish descent Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks from entering their country!

The second (2) in 1938-1940-1941 Switzerland sealed its borders completely with barbed wire...

(+) By the time Switzerland changed its border policy in December 1944-1945 after no longer being able to ignore the extermination of Jews and Jewish descent Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks by  the Nazis in Nazi-Germany, Nazi- allied countries and Nazi- occupied European countries, but it was too late for thousand's who had tried to cross the border to survive and find a shelter.

(+) Especially for those Jews and Jewish descent Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks, refugees who were not able to enter any more  Switzerland by the  end of 1944-1945, when the european jewry and Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks were wiped out by the Nazis at the deathcamps in Europe, 6-8 Million and more Jewish and Jewish descent lives.

(+) Additionally, the conditions in Switzerland were always often too difficult for many Jews and Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks: they were imprisoned and sent to the work camps and separated from their children and families, even though as a protection to not bear new children, because they would get automatically the Swiss citizenship and the parents could stay in Switzerland to survive the Holocaust-Shoa.

(+) A Swiss Government list of 136,300 refugees expelled from or denied to entry the Switzerland it was posted on the Claims Conference Website.

(+) Several survivors who have received payments told the Claims Conference that they applied for compensation after they found all their names on the list files.

(+) The Claims Conference also worked with its unique network of 35.000 partner agencies, in local Jewish communities and world wide to provide information and assistance to the survivors and their relatives on an individual basis.

The Bergier Report:

(+) The discriminating big red  „J“- and „JUIVE“- Stamp, of  Switzerland during Holocaust-Shoa 1933-1945.

(+) From 1933 to 1938 the German Nazi regime introduced several measures discriminating Jews. The restrictions taken in 1937-1938 were especially severe so that many Jews considered to leave Germany.

(+) The Swiss authorities wanted to restrict immigration and discussed ways to do so with the Germans.

(+) Finally Germany and Switzerland decided to mark passports of Jews and Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks with a big red
„J“- and „JUIVE“- Stamp.  in beginning of 1938.

The Bergier Report:
These are the really important facts,

(+) The Swiss authorities wanted to know,  whether a person trying to enter Switzerland was of Jewish origin or of Jewish descent Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks, or not and they didn't want to find out them selves - much like the U.S. administration is nowadays interested in whether a person flying from Europe to the U.S. is of Arab origin or not, and forces carriers to deliver personal information about the passengers. (See reports in the European press in March and again in December 2003).

(+) Today's: Swiss government acknowledges that Switzerland had its big share in the affair with the big red  „J“- and „JUIVE“- Stamp, and publicly apologized on 8th-March, 1995 - knowing that there is no excuse for collaboration with regimes like the Nazis in Germany.

(See answer of the Swiss government to a parliamentary interpellation) : Antwort des Bundesrates auf die parlamentarische Anfrage 98.3447 von Ständerat Maximilian Reimann vom 7.10.1998. Nothing remains to be added to this official statement.

 

The Bergier Report:

  •  

(+) Shortcomings in Switzerland's Refugee Politics during the Holocaust Shoa 1933-1945.

(+) Having stated these circumstances and even more doubtful role of other nations, some aspects of Switzerland's refugee politics have to be outlined critically here:

(+) Swiss officials were directly involved, when Nazi Germany introduced a  new stamp a big red „J“- or „JUIVE“- Stamp, to mark passports of all Jews and of Jewish descent in Europe.

(+) Switzerland did reject between 130,000 to 136,000 Jews and Jewish descent Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkisch descent Jews&Turks, refugees at the border, even after the government (not necessarily the population) was informed, that the Nazis would not only send them to labour camps but rather murder them systematically in death camps like Auschwitz.

(+) Swiss diplomats in Nazi Germany, nazi allied countries  and Nazi occupied territories did not enough´to defend the rights of Swiss citizens living there, especially if these Swiss citizens were Jews and Jewish descent.

(+) The main responsibility for the shortcomings lies with the government of Switzerland, the administration and to a lesser extent with the right wing majority of the Swiss parliament supporting the hard line of the government.

(+) There was also widespread fear among the population, that refugees would aggravate the shortage on food!

(+) (See rationing and cultivation battle
).These feelings were not based on sober statistics however:

(+) The total;- o rejected refugees would have increased the total population of Switzerland by only -  0.6 % !

Antisemitism in

Switzerland Since 1294

From 1215 thru 1845 anti-Semitism in Switzerland, burned a live at stake, expulsion of Jews and Jewish descent big ghettos and quarters, residence permit with special Jewish tax and fee, by law obligatory to wear a black hat and the yellow star until 1848. (4'th Lateran-Council 1215-1845) - A. Weldler-Steinberg, Gesch. der Juden in der Schweiz vom 12'th century  until emancipation. January 1, 1966 -Germania Judaica 2/1,1968; 3/2, 1995.

1294
, 30 June all Jews in Bern-Switzerland were accused of poisoning wells and were expelled and burned alive at stake. (MC, 6/30/02)

1348, 21 September all Jews in Zurich- Switzerland were accused of poisoning wells and were expelled and burned alive at stake. (MC, 9/21/01)

1348, 15 November Rudolph of Oron claimed all Jews confessed to poisoning wells and were expelled and burned alive at stake.. (MC, 11/15/01)

1349, 9 January In Basel, Switzerland, (700) countless Jewish families were burned alive in their houses. (MC, 1/9/02)

1349, 13 February all Jews were expelled from Burgsdorf, in Switzerland. (MC, 2/13/02)

1349, 22 February all Jews were expelled were burned alive at stake Zurich, Switzerland. (HN, 2/22/98)

1427, 10 May all Jews were expelled from Bern were burned alive at stake Switzerland. (MC, 5/10/02)

1559, 13 May Excavated corpse of  heretic Jew David Jorisz was burned in Basel. (MC, 5/13/02)

1809, 5 May Citizenship was denied to all Jews and their family's of Canton of Aargau, Switzerland. (MC, 5/5/02)

1918  The Swiss Fatherland Association, an Anti - Semitic and anti - immigration, group was founded. (SFC, 6/10/98, p.A10)
 

1938, 28 May the great Jewish Professor (MR. PAUL HINDEMITH'S) Opera  "Mathis der Maler,"  premiered in Zurich-Switzerland. ( The great jewish professor, during the Holocaust Shoah survived in TURKEY) No protection in Switzerland or Europe for him and his family) (MC, 5/28/02)

1937 - 1938  Switzerland asked Berlin to stamp all German passports with "J"or"JUIVE" Stamp so that they could bar most Jews and jewish descent from Germany and from other European countrys. This was later acknowledged from 1937 to 1945 for all Jews and jewish descent (Included Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkish descent Jews&Turks). (WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A18)

1939 - 1945  The US Intelligence Service CIA revealed in 1997 that during WW II. the Swiss National Bank sent 280 truckloads of Nazi gold to Spain and Portugal. (USAT, 1/13/97, p.3A)

1939 - 1945 Switzerland turned away at least 130.000 - 136.000 Jews, Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkish descent Jews&Turks, families with children fleeing from Nazi terror and deathcamps. Some of the Refugees were forced to work in many labor camps in Switzerland and rented to Germany as a slave (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/11/99, p.C1)

1940 June The Germans began to loot the artwork of Paris and more than 170,000 Jewish, Jewish-descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens, Turkish descent of Jews&Turks the countless victim residences were plundered.

 A lot of artwork was sold to the Swiss industrialist Emil G. Bührle and his Foundation in Switzerland, the largest buyer of confiscated Jewish French art. The story is told by Hector Feliciano in his 1997 book: The Lost Museum. The best book on the fate of European art in WW II. was reported to be "The Greate Rape of Europa" by Lynn Nicholas.(SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.7)(SFC,11/19/97, p.E6

1942, 17 October Eduard von Steiger, Justice Minister and minister of police, told leaders of the Swiss Fatherland Association that the government had decided on a "fundamental stop"of Jews, of Jewish descent, Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens, Turkish descent of Jews&Turks from 1942 till 1945 the immigration. (SFC, 6/10/98, p.a10)

1945 After the war the US and its allies made a deal with the Swiss to accept repayment of $ 6 million us dollars and waived further claims. The claims were for gold acquired from the Nazis during the war. Much of the gold was from occupied countries and Jews. (FB, 9/12/96, p.A9)

1945 The Union Bank of Switzerland took over the Eidgenoessische Bank which had built up an extensive business with Germany during the Third Reich.World war II. (SFC, 1/17/96, p.A1)

1946 The Swiss government agreed to turn over half of some German assets in vaults to help war refugees and other victims. "The agreement was not kept from Switzerland". (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A10)

1995 Prompted by Jewish groups Swiss banks searched their dormant accounts and claimed to have found only $ 1320 million. (SFC, 10/24/96, p.C2)

1996 The independent Volker commission was set up to find the truth about assets deposited by Holocaust victims in Swiss banks. In 1999 the committee presented a list of some 154,000 accounts with "possible or probable relationships" to Holocaust victims with a total value of as much as $1.3 - 1.8 billion. (SFC, 12/7/99, p.A10)

1996 The Independent Commission of Experts on Switzerland and WW II. was set up. It was led by Mr. Francois Bergier, Swiss historian. In 2001 the commission published their report "Switzerland as a Hub for German Covert Operations from 1933 - 1952." (SFC, 12/7/01, p.F5)

1997, 5 January Jewish leaders blasted the remark of former Swiss President Jean - Pascal Delamuraz, who called Jewish demands for the compensation of Holocaust victims "blackmail." (SFC, 1/6/97, p.A9)

1997
, 9 January Christoph Meili, night watchman at the Union Bank of Switzerland, salvaged an armful of books and papers that contained bank records from the Nazi era that were about to be shredded,,.. His dismissal from the security company for which he worked, effective at the end of April, was announced Feb 24. 1997 (SFC, 1/17/96, p.E1)(SFC, 2/24/96, p.A14)

1997, 27 January The Swiss ambassador to the US, Carlo Jagmetti, resigned after remarks against groups that represented Holocaust Shoah victims seeking recompense from all Swiss banks in Switzerland. (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A6)

1997
, 31 January Switzerland's President Arnold Koller expressed regret to Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin  Netenyahu for all the wrong doings of the Holocaust - Shoah victims. (SFC, 2/1/97, p.C1)

1997,
February Three Swiss banks announced that they had put about $70 million into an account with the Swiss National Bank to establish a "Humanitarian Fund" for the victims of the Holocaust - Shoah. (SFC, 2/6/97, p.C2)

1997, 23 July Swiss banks published after 52 years, a list of 2,000 WW II.era dormant accounts that included assets of all Holocaust Shoah victims?  (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A8)

1997, 13 October Swiss bank officials said that 40,000 more unclaimed accounts from the Holocaust Shoah era were found containing about $ 400 million. (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A12)

1997, 29 October Swiss banks released findings? of an additional $ 112.4 million in unclaimed funds from WW II..? (SFC,10/30/97, p.A13)

1997, 18 November Holocaust Shoah survivors from Latvia received the first checks from a $ 20 million fund set up by Swiss banks. Individual survivors were to each receive $ 1000.- (SFC,11/19/97, p.C4)

1998, 26 March Three major Swiss banks pledged to set up a compensation fund in the US for a global settlement with Holocaust Shoah victims. The Swiss government announced a blunt non-involvement in the global settlement. (SFC, 3/27/98, p.A12)(SFC, 4/2/98, p.C2)

1998, 12 Agust Representatives of Swiss banks and Holocaust Shoah survivors agreed to a settlement of $1.25 billion in reparations for victims of the Nazi regime during the Holocaust Shoah. (SFC, 8/13/98, p.A1)

SWITZERLAND

In Switzerland also  from the beginning of the Middle Ages until 1848 expulsion of Jews, persecution of Jews and burned a live at stake, anti-Semitic, Jewish-badge a star and a hat (4’th Lateran council 1215) - A. Weldler-Steinberg, book History of the Jews in Switzerland from 12’th century until emancipation. January 1, 1966-Germania Judaica 2/1,1968; 3/2, 1995

(1) Switzerland, the land (by popular vote) agreed and acted in the beginning of 1937-1938 officially their bearing against all Jews, Jewish descent and Jewish refugees in a very stiff way of Anti-Semitic policy. Especially to label first all passports and identity papers of Jews, Jewish descent Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkish descent Jews&Turks with a big red "J"- "JUIVE"- Stamp.

(2) In addition: Switzerland, the federal council, discriminated in 1941-1942 all Jews, Jewish descent and Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkish descent Jews&Turks and refugees with a decision especially refusing asylum and by returning 136.000 helpless souls at the border thus delivering them to the Nazi armed forces, SS, Gestapo and Nazi Germany, consequently and surely sending them to death.

 (3) Also: Anti-Semitic motivated were the sanctions, actions and the daily practice like discriminating especially the children of Jews, Jewish descent and Turkish citizens, former Turkish citizens and Turkish descent Jews&Turks; for their children it was forbidden to come and go to Switzerland for recreation- habitation, like many other children from other countries did during the Holocaust-Shoah and World War II…

 (4) Switzerland, the federal council ordered the border police and forbade from October 1938 on that their former citizens, especially the Swiss women and Swiss women of Jewish faith, who were married with a foreigner to return to Switzerland and being repatriated…

(5) 1995 Switzerland, the federal council official excused for these wrong doings during the Holocaust-Shoah, 1933-1945, but it was too late...

 

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